Paul Bogard is author of The End of Night: Searching for Natural Darkness in an Age of Artificial Light, and editor of Let There Be Night: Testimony on Behalf of the Dark. He is a professor of creative writing and environmental literature at James Madison University in Virginia, USA.
Steve Fotios is Professor of Lighting and Visual Perception in the school of architecture at the University of Sheffield where he leads research of lighting and human factors through funding from EPSRC, the Department for Transport, and lighting industry. His strong emphasis on methodology lead to the international research methods workshop Lumenet for PhD students, and the formation of CIE technical committee TC1.80 which established best practice guidance for research of spatial brightness.
Night's natural darkness is vitally important for our physical, psychological, and spiritual health. What are we losing as we lose this darkness? How can we protect and restore night's natural darkness in an age of artificial light? In this presentation, author Paul Bogard explores the value of darkness and the threats from light pollution to human health and the health of the world around us.
Lighting in residential roads is designed primarily to meet the needs of pedestrians and for these the critical visual tasks include evaluation of perceived safety and evaluations of other people. The establishment of design criteria requires an understanding of how variations in lighting characteristics such as luminance, spectrum and uniformity affect how well these tasks can be carried out. This presentation will discuss problems associated with experiments that aim to measure these responses, a discussion of experimental bias and understanding of pedestrians needs. For example, while several studies have investigated facial recognition, reporting the distance at which facial recognition was achieved under certain conditions, they failed to question if that distance was the one at which such judgements are desirable, and that has implications for determination of whether variations in lighting are significant. The presentation will also discuss evidence of road lighting and crime. The aim of these studies is to provide empirical evidence to support lighting guidance, somewhat limited in current standards, thus to inform the compromise between visual needs and energy consumption.